, At the beginning of the invasion, it is clear that the Persians held most advantages.  The Allies proceeded to occupy the pass, rebuilt the wall the Phocians had built at the narrowest point of the pass, and waited for Xerxes's arrival. Mardonius sought to exploit dissensions between the Allies in order to fracture the alliance. However, according to Herodotus, there was at least a general conformity in the type of armour and style of fighting. At the ensuing Battle of Plataea, the Greek infantry again proved its superiority, inflicting a severe defeat on the Persians, killing Mardonius in the process. The battle was fought for over three days, at the same time as the naval Battle of Artemisium on 20 August or 8–10 September, 480 BC.  After Salamis, the Persian strategy changed.  Support thus began to coalesce around these two states. He claims that the losses were replenished with reinforcements, though he only records 120 triremes from the Greeks of Thrace and an unspecified number of ships from the Greek islands. An alliance of Greek city-states of about 6,700 men fought the invading Persian Empire, which had an army of about 242,000 men, at the pass of Thermopylae in central Greece. ", Despite attempts to capture the city by treachery, the Persians were forced to keep up the siege for three months. On the third day of the battle, the remaining Allies sallied forth from the wall to meet the Persians and slaughter as many as they could. , A map showing the Greek world at the time of the invasion, In 491 BC, Darius sent emissaries to all the Greek city-states, asking for a gift of 'earth and water' in token of their submission to him.  At Plataea, the harassing of the Allied positions by cavalry was a successful tactic, forcing the precipitous (and nearly disastrous) retreat; however, Mardonius then brought about a general melee between the infantry which resulted in the Persian defeat. This invasion in particular, however, probably Xerxes then sent his elite guards, the Immortals on a night march to outflank the Allied. The battle took place at the pass of Thermopylae.  However, at the battle of Marathon, the Athenian hoplites had shown their superiority over the Persian infantry, albeit in the absence of any cavalry. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. This was the Delian League, named due to the fact that the treasury was keep on Delos, a very sacred island.  Subject: World History.  After the victory at Mycale, the Allied fleet sailed to the Hellespont to break down the pontoon bridges, but found that this was already done.  Some of contingents may have been armed somewhat differently; for instance, the Saka were renowned axemen. The Persians first attempt at invading Greece had been defeated at the Bay of Marathon.  Thus, the Allied victory at Salamis must at least partially be ascribed to a Persian strategic blunder. Events by cover.  This essentially reduced the conflict to a naval one. Even if the shield did not stop a missile, there was a reasonable chance the armour would. These ships were to round Euboea and block the line of retreat for the Allied fleet. These numbers are discussed fully in the article for each battle. King Xerxes had brought his huge army and navy… It was agreed that there would be a combined army and navy which would be under Spartan command, but with Themistocles, the Athenian leader, providing the strategy.  The Persians had a unified command system, and everyone was answerable to the king.  This meant that Sparta was also now effectively at war with Persia. Conflict mounted between the Athenians and the allies of Sparta. Second Persian invasion of Greece. Ancient kylix, 5th century BC, The second Persian invasion of Greece was an event of major significance in European history. This was because he feared his fleet sustaining damage should another storm arise.  Then the army which Xerxes had mustered marched towards Europe, crossing the Hellespont on two pontoon bridges.  The Allied army however, under the command of the Spartan regent Pausanias, stayed on high ground above Plataea to protect themselves against such tactics.  Conversely by avoiding destruction, or as Themistocles hoped, by destroying the Persian fleet, the Greeks could avoid conquest.  Mardonius ordered a hit-and-run cavalry attack on the Greek lines, but the attack was unsuccessful and the cavalry commander killed. , Over the winter, there seems to have been some tension between the Allies.  It was the botched attempt to retreat from Plataea that finally delivered the Allies battle on their terms.  They had little experience of large-scale warfare, being largely restricted to small-scale local warfare, and their commanders were chosen primarily on the basis of the political and social standing, rather than because of any experience or expertise.  Seeing that he might never have a better opportunity to attack, Mardonius ordered his whole army forward.  The Persian army took roughly 3 months to travel unopposed from the Hellespont to Therme, a journey of about 360 miles (600 km). Moreover, the threat of future invasion was abated; although the Greeks remained worried that Xerxes would try again, over time it became apparent that the Persian desire to conquer Greece was much diminished. , The main battle at Plataea. Warfare > Second Persian Invasion of Greece. The main source for the Great Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus.  Their morale boosted, the Allied marines fought and won a decisive victory at the Battle of Mycale that same day, destroying the remnants of the Persian fleet. This went according to plan, until a traitor showed the Persian army a way over the mountains.  The hoplite was, by the standards of the time, heavily armoured, with a breastplate (originally bronze, but probably by this stage a more flexible leather version), greaves, a full helmet, and a large round shield (the aspis). The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in central Greece at the mountain pass of Thermopylae in 480 BCE during the Persian Wars.  Athens thus fell; the small number of Athenians who had barricaded themselves on the Acropolis were eventually defeated, and Xerxes then ordered Athens to be torched. After Darius’s death, his son Xerxes spent several years planning for … Perisia now controlled northern Greece, and were able to march down into Athens and take control over the whole of Greece .  The phalanx was vulnerable to being outflanked by cavalry, if caught on the wrong terrain, however.  Athens was thus evacuated again, and the Persians marched south and re-took possession of it. The second Persian war was a war of much significance to European history. In order for Athens to start rebuilding Greece and also to protect it from future invasion, an alliance was formed. ** The image above shows "Leonidas at Thermopylae" by Jacques-Louis David before he could lauch another assault on Greece , so it was his son Xerxes that set out to complete his fathers ambition of conquering Greece.  The Greco-Persian wars are also described in less detail by a number of other ancient historians including Plutarch, Ctesias, and are alluded by other authors, such as the playwright Aeschylus.  Shortly afterwards, they received the news that Xerxes had crossed the Hellespont.  Cavalry was provided by the Persians, Bactrians, Medes, Cissians and Saka; most of these probably fought as lightly armed missile cavalry. 48:48. The following Spring, the Allies assembled the largest ever hoplite army, and marched north from the isthmus to confront Mardonius. Common Knowledge Events Second Persian Invasion of Greece. When Xerxes was eventually persuaded that the Allies intended to contest the pass, he sent his troops to attack.  They had a hugely efficient bureaucracy which allowed them to undertake remarkable feats of planning.  As Lazenby therefore asks: "So why did the Persians fail?".  The Ionian revolt threatened the integrity of his empire, and Darius thus vowed to punish those involved (especially those not already part of the empire). With the Persian Empire defeated, mainly due to the Spartan army, many believed that Sparta would continue to act as leader for Greece . Over the next 30 years, the Greeks, primarily the Athenian-dominated Delian League, would expel the Persians from Macedon, Thrace, the Aegean islands and Ionia. Second Persian Invasion of Greece.  The Allied position now undermined, Pausanias ordered a night-time retreat towards their original positions.  As soon as the Peloponnesians had marched north of the isthmus, the Athenian fleet under Xanthippus had joined up with the rest of the Allied fleet. The Persian Wars ended with the Peace of Callias of 449, but by this time, and as a result of actions taken in Persian War battles, Athens had developed her own empire.  The abandonment of Tempe meant that all of Thessaly submitted to the Persians, as did many cities to the north of the pass of Thermopylae when it seemed help was not forthcoming.  That evening, the Allies received news of the fate of Leonidas and the Allies at Thermopylae.  Then, attempting to use an unusually low tide to attack the town from sea, the Persian army was caught by the returning tide, many drowning and the survivors being attacked by the Potideans in boats. The Persian fleet fell for the plan and many of the larger ships were trapped in the narrow waters surrounding Salamis.The smaller and more mobile Greek ships were able to surround the Persian ships and destroy them.  Nevertheless, the Spartans considered the threat so grave that they despatched their king Leonidas I with his personal bodyguard (the Hippeis) of 300 men (in this case, the elite young soldiers in the Hippeis were replaced by veterans who already had children).  However, the Greek position was ideally suited to hoplite warfare, the Persian contingents being forced to attack the phalanx head on. Second Persian Invasion of Greece: Russell, Jesse, Cohn, Ronald, Russel, Jesse: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Since the Allied fleet was badly damaged, and since it no longer needed to defend the flank of Thermopylae, they retreated from Artemisium to the island of Salamis. The major lesson of the invasion, reaffirming the events at the Battle of Marathon, was the superiority of the hoplite in close-quarters fighting over the more-lightly armed Persian infantry. However, if this is the case, then it must be questioned why there were Greek and Egyptian contingents in the navy. , The majority of other city-states remained more-or-less neutral, awaiting the outcome of the confrontation. By sending out a fake message, the Persian fleet was enticed into the small strait of Salamis.  Similarly, Mardonius remained in Thessaly, knowing an attack on the isthmus was pointless, whilst the Allies refused to send an army outside the Peloponessus. Only 70 of the approximately 700 Greek cities sent representatives. After Darius's death, his son Xerxes spent several years planning for the second invasion, mustering an enormous army and navy.  The Persians in the region, and their allies made for Sestos, the strongest town in the region, which the Athenians then laid siege to; after a protracted siege, it fell to the Athenians. Introduction The Persian Wars were a series of conflicts involving the Persian Empire and many Greek city-states spanning from c.499-449 BCE.  Early in spring it moved to Abydos where it was joined with the armies of the western satrapies. After almost an century of fighting the Greek and Persian signed the Peace of Callias.  However, Leotychides decided to attack the camp with the Allied fleet's marines. With this double defeat, the invasion was ended, and Persian power in the Aegean severely dented.  This may have played a part, and certainly the Greeks seem to have interpreted their victory in those terms.  Ctesias gives another number, 1,000 ships, while Plato, speaking in general terms refers to 1,000 ships and more.  It revolved around the hoplite, members of the middle-classes (the zeugites) who could afford the armour necessary to fight in this manner.  Partly as a result of subterfuge on the part of Themistocles, the navies finally engaged in the cramped Straits of Salamis.  This confederation had the power to send envoys asking for assistance and to dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points after joint consultation. (Redirected from Book:Second Persian invasion of Greece) This page is currently inactive and is retained for historical reference. Instead of sending his fleet out to sea he instructed his men to dig a canal through Athos, which took three years to complete. This ended the war even though the Second Persian Invasion of Greece ended … Overview of the second Persian invasion of Greece The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by Sparta, and the Persian Empire of king Xerxes, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.  At Artemisium the fleet also scored some successes, but withdrew due to the losses they had sustained, and since the defeat of Thermopylae made the position irrelevant. No votes yet.  The Allies thus withstood two full days of battle and everything Xerxes could throw at them. Asia. The task force then moved on Eretria, which it besieged and destroyed. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA.  Thus far, the Persian strategy had succeeded, whilst the Allied strategy, though not a disaster, had failed. It paused at Doriskos where it was joined by the fleet.  Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On The Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as "Philobarbaros" (barbarian-lover), for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might actually have done a reasonable job of being even-handed.  However, the Peloponnesian cities made fall-back plans to defend the Isthmus of Corinth should it come to it, whilst the women and children of Athens were evacuated en masse to the Peloponnesian city of Troezen. At the famous Battle of Thermopylae, the Allied army held back the Persian army for seven days, before they were outflanked by a mountain path and the Allied rearguard was trapped in the pass and annihilated. Silicious glazed bricks, c. 510 BC, Louvre, The Persians had encountered hoplites in battle before at Ephesus, where their cavalry had easily routed the (probably exhausted) Greeks.  The hoplite's heavy armour and long spears made them excellent troops in hand-to-hand combat and gave them significant protection against ranged attacks by light troops and skirmishers. The annual contribution of ships, and then later money, allowed Athens to enter into a new age.  As Holland has it: "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally. , When the Persians arrived at Thermopylae in mid-August, they initially waited for three days for the Allies to disperse. When the Persians did reach Athens, they destroyed it and burnt it down to the ground.  Darius also saw the opportunity to expand his empire into the fractious world of Ancient Greece. In the final reckoning, both sides were prepared to stake everything on a naval battle, in the hope of decisively altering the course of the war.  When the other Allies failed to commit to this, the Athenian fleet probably refused to join the Allied navy in Spring.  Hereafter, they will be referred to as the 'Allies'. , These numbers are (by ancient standards) consistent, and this could be interpreted that a number around 1,200 is correct. We are now at 480 BCE, where Xerxes is going to try to invade Greece by land and by sea, but as we will see, he is also not going to be successful. ", Some subsequent ancient historians, despite following in his footsteps, criticised Herodotus, starting with Thucydides.  The outcome prompted the Allies to move to a position nearer the Persian camp, still on high ground.  The Persians, whose ships were in a poor state of repair, had decided not to risk fighting, and instead drew their ships up on the beach under Mycale. Pass of Thermopylae opened to the Allies by Themistocles, providing that you comply with the Allied position now,! `` Asian '' is Herodotus ' but under that term he also includes Arabians and north.! 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