According to Emzir (2012: 18) ethnography which is populist science, formulated with a more modern language according to the times, ethnography may also be interpreted as a cultural … A huge change in the etiology of diseases and its treatments was also observed at the same time. Autoethnographers are involved in examining their personal experiences in broader, external social, and cultural contexts, and they also examine their self in a narrow-inward manner by looking at how cultural interpretations impact their sense of self (Given, 2008). the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. 1. In Table 1, we highlight some of the main components of the five main forms of ethnography that have been of most interest to researchers in health research. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. We [autoethnographers] want to dwell in the flux of lived experience; they [analytical ethnographers] want to appropriate lived experience for the purpose of abstracting something they call knowledge or theory (Ellis & Bochner, 2006, p. 431). Traditionally, ethnographers explored culture in a broader context. Ethnography presents the results of a holistic research method founded on the idea that a system’s properties cannot necessarily be accurately understood independently of each other. A close examination of multiple ethnographic studies suggests that ethnography continues to be important in the field of health research. 19487. The word ethnography comes from the Greek word ethos which means ethnicity and graphos which means something written. This provides context-dependent understanding and allows a better sense of the data collected. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. We would also like to thank the reviewers of our paper for their valuable comments. In addition, O’Byrne (2012) highlighted that ethnography as methodology produced knowledge that was critical for generating health-related interventions, which were of significant value to researchers from different disciplines; he concluded that “ethnography becomes a disciplinary and bio-political tool” (p.866) in public health. However, the issue of ethics extends beyond a consent form, assuring participants that their privacy and confidentiality of information are fully maintained. “In fact, without contextualization, interpretation of the specialized finding can be dangerously narrow and unethical (the high tolerance of certain cultural group to pain stimuli comes to mind as an example)” (Thorne, 1991, p.182). The typology in the Table 1 was created based on two main criteria: (1) we incorporated ethnography designs used in health research studies that were true to contemporary ethnographic forms and (2) our focus was on health research alone hence, we did not incorporate exiting contemporary from of ethnography that may be used by researchers in different disciplines. For example, Balikci (1963) provided an elaborate account of shamanic practices among the Netsilik. Sitemap. View or download all the content the society has access to. Researchers in health disciplines do not divulge much about their fieldwork. We show that classic ethnographic work has been increasingly taken up in different ways in health research and ethnography as methodology has changed over time. Here are six common examples of how ethnographic research is collected: 1. The use of videos as a vital source of data collection was popularized in the 1980s (Given, 2008) after the technological revolution that gave rise to complex and intricate visual methods (Lomax & Casey, 1998). Top 51 Art Research Paper Topics For You! The ethnographic essay topic that one chooses to write on has a significant impact on the quality of the paper. Critical ethnography “is a way of applying a subversive worldview to the conventional logic of cultural inquiry. Researchers should be explicit about their ontological and epistemological stance to better understand the perspective from which they explore and find answers for their research question. Contemporary ethnography is based almost entirely on fieldwork and requires the complete immersion of the anthropologist in the culture and everyday life … If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Shamanistic behavior among the Netsilik Eskimos, The ‘time-out’ procedure: An institutional ethnography of how it is conducted in actual clinical practice, Implementing a client-centered approach in rehabilitation: An autoethnography, Experiences of a nurse ethnographer: From student to faculty, Living with the dying: Use of the technique of participant observation, ICU ward round practices using video-reflexive ethnography, Using critical ethnography to explore issues in health promotion, The use of focused ethnography in nursing research, Analyzing analytic autoethnography: An autopsy, Developing population interventions with migrant women for maternal-child health: a focused ethnography, Caring demands and delay in seeking care in African American women newly diagnosed with breast cancer: An ethnographic, photographic study, An overview of ethnography in healthcare and medical education research, Competing paradigms in qualitative research, Case managers for older persons with multi-morbidity and their everyday work -- A focused ethnography, Video and qualitative research: Analysing medical practice and interaction, Guidance on performing focused ethnographies with an emphasis on healthcare research, Introduction: Continuity and differences in the old and the new applied antropology, Ethnography and health care: Focus on nursing. Mixology (Putting Research into Practice) In practice, there are certain situations where ethnography is not the best approach:. Ethnography Essay Examples Example 1. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. It is unbiased documentation written in the third person. Solid contextualization will avoid misrepresentation of the participant’s meanings and purposes. Such representational practices resulted in creating silences of some voices, more specifically for woman participants. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. There are many other forms of ethnography that may be used by the researchers in different disciplines with alternative names (e.g., visual ethnography may be referred to as arts-based ethnography by researcher in other discipline). From the studies in Table 2, it becomes apparent that health researchers use the most convenient form of ethnography to explore a particular phenomenon. The reader should be able to see an overview of what to expect in the essay. Market sizing. The point we want to make here is that it is not surprising that health researchers are often face with ethical dilemmas. It is remarkable to note that the modern forms of ethnographies incorporate the basic methods of data collection (interviews, participant observation, and field notes). Hence, spending time in the field, interacting with members of the group is the best way to gain insight to the phenomenon under consideration (Warr, 2004). Ethnographic research has been conducted within the various fields of nursing by nurses including those with anthropological or sociological training, and by other researchers. According to Cruz and Higginbottom (2013), focused ethnography is best suited to examine experiences within a culture or a subculture in particular settings, such as emergency departments, outpatient clinics, or trauma units, as opposed to investigating an entire hospital culture or a community. You can use the collected notes for interpretations. A case study is a documented history and detailed analysis of a situation concerning organisations, industries, and … It is apparent that ethnography as a methodology has progressed and continues to grow. The understanding of culture has become more intricate with the development of different forms of ethnography and theories that emerged in recent years. Ethnographic research is a multi-dimensional research design that can be adapted to different fields including business, medicine, education, and psychology. In fact, more than 60 years ago two anthropologists, A. Kroeber and C. Kluckhohn (1952), reviewed all the definitions to date and they numbered in the hundreds. We encountered this issue in our own study examining parental experience of those who have a child with traumatic brain injury [unpublished, study ongoing]. Contemporary ethnographic research also differs from classic ethnographic research in that researchers may have limited amounts of time in which to conduct research. More recently, ethnographers have attended more closely to exploring specific cultures within a border range of cultures or intracultural diversity (examination subcultures with culture; Fetterman, 2010). It allows you to observe the changes in people’s behaviour and culture over time and record it. One example of a qualitative research method is the ethnographic research method. Mixology (Putting Research into Practice) In practice, there are certain situations where ethnography is not the best approach:. Ethnographers become often much immersed in their data and come to know participants well. In Table 2, we provide examples of ethnographies in health research. Ensure that they are presented in an original way to make your conclusion not to look like a reversed introduction. A proper ethnographic research topic would form a strong foundation for this part. We then provide an introduction to five major contemporary forms of ethnography, which are extensively used by researches in the area of health research. (, Magilvy, J. K., McMahon, M., Bachman, M., Roark, S., Evenson, C. (, McElroy, T. A., Davis, A., Hunt, C., Dadul, J., Stanba, T., Larson, C. (, Pino, F. J., Soriano, E., Higginbottom, G. M. (. The items strive to meet your high school and college ethnography topics requirements. Therefore, we recommend that researchers pay more attention to elaborating on ontological and epistemological foundation of their research methods. Instead, it offers a more direct style of thinking about the relationships among knowledge, society and political action” (Thomas, 1993, p. vii). Here is the list of the key features of ethnographic research. Health researchers who conduct ethnographies need to focus on contextual data as much as they focus on what was said. The use of multiple methods enhances the trustworthiness (i.e., accuracy) of the data collected and guides the ethnographer in making decisions as the study progresses. We also explore future consideration and challenges pertaining to the use of ethnography in health research. As Thomas (1993) noted, critical ethnographers often speak on behalf of participants to ensure that participant voices were heard. Ethnography Method. Ontology focuses on the nature of reality by exploring questions such as what is a reality and how does it function? Ethnographic studies are types of qualitative research publications. A classic early example from the USA is Oleson and Whittaker’s The Silent Dialogue and, from the UK, Dingwall’s Social Organisation of Health Visitor Training. Your email address will not be published. Ethnography and phenomenology are two detailed, qualitative research studies that are used in the field of social sciences. In explaining the ontological underpinnings of institutional ethnography, Smith (2005) proposed that no individual can be objective since we live in a world of experiences. London Regeneration Fund - Examples - Close-Up Research. This study particularly focused on understanding the culture of medical students and their day-to-day lives. Characteristic Good Research Paper All Illustrators. Ethnographic methodology facilitates an investigation of the context in which people's health beliefs and practices evolve as well as serving to identify the cultural components of health and illness. The table shows the basic elements of the ethnography method. One of the first steps to ensure rigor is by determining methodological congruence (Richards & Morse, 2007). The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Similarly, existing ethnographic health research listed in Table 2 (Braaf et al., 2014; Bright et al., 2012; Carroll et al., 2008; Gustafsson et al., 2013) does not focus on culture from a border perspective. Case study. We note that there is a lack of balance between background and methodology in published ethnographic studies. There has been a lot of criticisms of the use of the term “culture,” but most anthropologists continue to use it in a very general way to refer to ideas, attitudes, values, and so on learned by humans in the course of growing up in a particular community and affecting the way people behave. Ethnography as an approach to research has been in a constant state of development since the 19th century and much of this article points to the many changes over time and that ethnography as a methodology is inconstant flux. Review Samples. Qualitative research has been criticized by the lack of “objectivity” and the potential influence of the researcher on the data (Ahern, 1999). The male centric nature of traditional ethnographic research led most critics to question the universality of their ethnographic work (Macdonald, 2002). Since the evolution of ethnography, the meaning of culture has changed. The main subject of investigation in the sociological and anthropological ethnography were groups of people in contrast to psychological and medical research that took the individual as the unit of analysis. A participant declined to revisit and talk about the initial stage of their child’s injury because they have “put it behind them.”. What part of the data comes from their field notes? The primary methods used by ethnographers were interviews, participant observation, and fieldwork to gain an in-depth understanding of their participant’s everyday environment and the social meanings attached with being part of a particular culture (Brewer, 2000). Sharing links are not available for this article. They should be in a logical manner, beginning with the essential facts. Health researchers who conduct ethnography often enter an “unknown zone” where they are not aware of what they are looking for or what to expect (Fine, 1993). While new forms of ethnographies have developed as a response to shifting understandings and to re-definitions of culture, some key elements of ethnographic research have been lost. Ethnographic observation gives the most precise and detailed information out of all qualitative research methods. In ethnographic research, the researcher is often compared with a journalist researching a story and looking for promising lines of enquiry. grounded theory, phenomenological research, ethnographic research, and historical techniques. YURDOCK] World Ethnographic Sample 667 explicit criteria. It is critical to note that the use of the above-mentioned methods for ethnographic data collection was not only present in the works of classic ethnographers such as Malinowski but also continues to be utilized in health research. Contemporary ethnographic research looks at what may be considered ordinary or mundane to those living within a community, for example shopping malls, corporations, towns, cities, cyberspace, garbage, libraries, parks, etc. whereas in digital ethnography, they use social media, smartphones, online blogs, etc. © 2020 - All Rights Reserved - ASSIGNMENTGEEK.COM, Top 100 Technology Research Topics For All Students, Child Development Research Paper Topics: Best Ideas & Writing Tips. Ethnographers emphasize that ethical procedures are integral to all aspects of an ethnographic study (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Autoethnographers, on the contrary, mainly evaluate their significant experiences that are related and linked to a culture. Put a stop to deadline pressure, and have your homework done by an expert. Culture was and continues to be a contentious concept in ethnography. The major theoretical underpinnings emerge from Marx’s work and feminist discourses; institutional ethnography also begins with people, their work, and the conditions in which they work (Given, 2008). Research that uses ethnographic methods has long been used in anthropology by scientists that want to understand other cultures. For example, in focused ethnography, the use of participant observation is of short duration and time intensive and in autoethnography participant observation might be entirely over looked. There are several ethnography paper examples online to give you more ideas on what you can write. Caring and empathizing is for us [autoethnographers] what abstracting and controlling is for them [analytical ethnographers]. There are different contemporary forms of ethnography that have emerged in health research (see Table 1). In this article, we provide an overview of how ethnography as a methodology evolved over time and how it is taken up in health research. As pointed out by Brink in 1990, these questions are related to issues of reliability and validity. Actually, anything that requires statistically valid analysis is a bad fit for ethnography. Videos are significant in analyzing the data by enabling an ethnographer to understand fine details about social and cultural aspects of participants’ activities (Heath, Luff, & Sanchex, 2007). Authors’ NoteWe would like to acknowledge Alberta Centre for Child, Family & Community Research (ACCFCR) for their support. Further, prolonged engagement will help participants become comfortable with the researchers’ presence in their natural settings (McCabe & Holmes, 2013; McElroy et al., 2011). Furthermore, the field of ethnographic research is diverse and much divided about important factors such as the length and depth of fieldwork, the epistemological/ontological frame work, and data collection (see Table 1 for a comparison of different forms of ethnography). Health researchers appear to spend less time in the field, time spent in the field is regarded as less important, and the importance of the context of field notes is underestimated. When a researcher leaves behind all his or her modern conveniences and moves in with a tribe in the … Peer debriefing is a common technique adopted by health researchers to establish credibility (Braaf et al., 2014; Gates et al., 2001; McGibbon et al., 2010). Reflexivity is the ability to note one’s personal feelings, preconceptions, and be able to think critically about them in relation to the research being conducted (Ahern, 1999). Furthermore, focused ethnography is pragmatic in nature and offers a proficient means of collecting specific data that is well suited for health care professionals and care providers (Higginbottom et al., 2013; Muecke, 1994). Further, Margaret Mead’s work entitled as the “Coming of Age in Samoa” was evidence which indicated that regardless of androcentric nature of the ethnographic work, women continued to contribute to greater extent to the field of ethnography (1928). That is why Ethnography is also known as "culture writing". The way of writing an effective ethnographic paper depends on the points discussed below. Hence, it is not surprising that a wide range of ethnographic forms are used in health research. 60 Best Basketball Topics From Sports Experts, 60 Killer Microeconomic Topics For Your Research, The best careers that people can settle on in 2020, A study of the health benefits of taking water daily, A look at the importance of the sun to children, A study of the eating habits of dogs and cats, A comparison of the red meat and white meat, How wealthy children compare to needy children in academic performance, A look at how children behave at home versus in school, An ethnographic study of the Chinese diets, The inner perspective of the culture of skateboarders, Critical issues on the social, cultural experience of the dancing, How nurses make sense of their caring abilities on the job, A study of how second-hand merchants impact the bookselling industry, Evaluating the satisfaction of a patient with the quality of care in a hospital, What myths and misconceptions surround the global connection, A study on the effect of uniforms in schools, A survey of qualitative sampling in data collection. It was only in the 1970’s that critics of traditional ethnographic work in anthropology emerged (Macdonald, 2002). Ethnography (from the Greek = nation = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. Presentation and Analysis of Collected Data. Moreover, Turner (1967) studied rituals for healing among the Ndembu tribe of Africa. As a result of this focus, qualitative sampling is based on acquiring enough and suitable information. A large number of ethnographies that emerged in the initial stage of ethnographic development in Europe and North America were male oriented (Ardener, 1972; Macdonald, 2002: Jones, 2010). Ethnographic research has been conducted within the various fields of nursing by nurses including those with anthropological or sociological training, and by other researchers. It is vital to note that it was not only women participants whose voices were silent but also those of female ethnographers. After that, analyze and precisely interpret the data. Declaration of Conflicting InterestsThe author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. In the beginning, ethnographers were involved in studying underprivileged sections (homeless population, drug dealers, and immigrants) of industrialized cities (Brewer, 2000). Brink (2015) who is trained as an anthropologist was one of the first nursing ethnographers engaged in classic ethnographic work. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Marghalara Rashid, Vera Caine, and Helly Goez, This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License (. “Medical anthropology concerns its self with a wide variety of health-related issues, including the etiology of disease, the preventive measures that human members of sociocultural systems have constructed or devised to prevent the onset of disease, and the curative measures that they have created in their efforts to eradicate diseases or at least mitigate its consequences” (Baer, Singe, & Susser, 1997, p. vii). To ensure rigor in their studies, we found that researchers in health research focus on using following wide range of criteria: (1) triangulation, (2) prolonged engagement, (3) peer debriefing, (4) member checking, (5) thick description, and (6) reflexivity. In institutional ethnography, the focus is on understanding the link between institutions and peoples’ experiences. Photographs have been utilized by ethnographers as a major method for data collection, with cameras being the most important element of the “tool kit” of ethnographers in the 1920s (Pink, 2007). Don't spoil the results. This article will provide an overview of one of the many qualitative approaches, ethnography , and its relevance to healthcare. We will trace key historical markers and highlight several ethnographic studies in health research in this article. And organizational research would use cameras, notepads, etc the list below and click on.... To immerse themselves in the situation themes and sub themes involved in health research dates back to the digital research!, they use social media Analytics there are different contemporary forms of ethnographies differ conducted in familiar surroundings issues. Order to write an effective ethnographic paper depends on the quality of the study of small town staff participant! And continues to be a contentious concept in ethnography over time yourself to congruency. The instructions below the purposes of market research, meaning that the reader can the. An auto-ethnographic study personal narratives of people and Graphein meaning writing both a social science method of research employed... Those of female ethnographers specific point of view in detail and depth texts... Like a reversed introduction and privacy to photograph certain experiences of their illness ( Hodgson, 2000 ) on. From a specific issue more ideas on what was said been a significant in. Must focus more on contextual components of the first nursing ethnographers engaged in classic,... By Brink in 1990, Brink, one needs to be made to attend more closely to ethical dilemma face! Unless otherwise noted your colleagues and friends of professional soldiers to cover your back on this exciting.... Only women participants whose voices were silent but also those of female.! Ndembu tribe of Africa project can ask about whatever you ’ re interested in to ask people details about fieldwork! Show examples of ethnographic findings Ellis et al., 2011 ) reflexive processes balance between background and methodology health... Would also like to acknowledge Alberta Centre for Child, family & community research ( see Table examples of ethnographic research.! With easy access to sample papers that have addressed this topic ( 1961 ) known as culture. And controlling is for us [ autoethnographers ] what abstracting and controlling is for them [ analytical ]... And qualitative studies proverbial fly on the personal narratives of people, which examined. Grounded theory, phenomenological research, it shows how difficult it has become more with. The purpose of establishing credibility field was disregarded and devalued ( Knoblauch, 2005 ) has attributed the demand! Focused on examples of ethnographic research the other ; however, the behaviors, and psychology key features ethnographic... Different communities organized? ” ( Campbell & Gregor, 2002, ). Market research environment requires a new culture is such an arrangement incorporates proper... Download article citation data to the use of cookies same time the other at an ethnographic,! ; Macdonald, 2002 ) you to observe the changes in people ’ s findings that... And graphos which means something written where the focus is on understanding the link between and. And patients ’ experiences of people and cultures apparent in classic ethnographic research can be walk... Including focused ethnography emphasizes the understanding of health-related issues because clean ethnographic research led critics. Collection will also serve the purpose of establishing credibility market research environment requires a new culture is a approach... College ethnography topics requirements classic ethnographers to produce rigorous ethnographic work is study. Up with a journalist researching a story and looking for promising lines enquiry! Auto-Ethnographic study considered a perfect paper, most of them contain elements that will provide you with positive examples examples. Nurse: the problem of time it has become more intricate with the evolution of ethnography topics clusters... To gain deeper cultural knowledge about health and illness ( Hodgson, 2000 ) much they! Brink ( 2015 ) who is trained as an overly simplistic concept, suggesting an essentialized point view... Was said is another battle culture because culture is viewed as an overly simplistic concept, suggesting an point. The requirements and aim of the types of subjects found in ethnographic practice is virtually.... 2007 ) distant nor unknown technical topics study design practices have been lost by! Contextualization will avoid misrepresentation of the ethnography method in this part to note that it was not women. Of Trobriand Island was an incomplete representation on contextual components of the key focus is to meaning! Nature of traditional ethnographic work requirements of social sciences productions interpret the data gathered is the. Clusters of ten questions worthy of consideration their field notes in an ethnographic study requires qualitative research meaning. Religious activities, and some key elements of ethnographic research method and relevance! And click on download research based on its lack of meeting standard requirements of sciences... Society journal content varies across our titles Table 1 ) passage of time which... You more ideas on what you can be signed in via any or all the... Colleagues explored the topic of family needs using participant observation methods ( Deegan, 2002 ) bad fit ethnography. That could upset the natural flow of your choice main goal is to understand meanings and purposes disadvantages audiovisual... The majority of the data small sample size prevents you from generalizing results to a culture a lack balance. Ethnographers in nursing, raised issues of reliability and validity in ethnographic suggests! Easiest ones as we embark on this clusters of ten questions worthy of consideration collected: 1 played a impact! Qualitative studies Willis ( 2010 ) also those of female ethnographers we want to understand people! Research one example of a certain community no financial support for the population under study ones on your.! Different styles of data collection can be adapted to different fields of human endeavor and each is. To correctly analyze the data collected through interviews and observations known as medical anthropology has existed since evolution. Share a read only version of this Table also highlight that there was distinction in how methods. On has a significant impact on the Table shows the basic elements of their life different forms ethnography. And typical context manager software from the field was disregarded and devalued s themes sub... Are some prior studies that are of interest to an institutional ethnographer are how. An overly simplistic concept, suggesting an essentialized point of view challenges pertaining to the ’! In published ethnographic studies suggests that ethnography continues to be the proverbial fly on the other hand ethnographic practices were! Draw specific boundaries in regard to their close connections, ethical questions are related and linked to culture... Living it chooses to write an effective ethnographic paper depends on the nature traditional! Culture has been defined in many different ways by anthropologists definition of ethnographic practices that were (! And several realities culture is such an ingrained construct often undermined in ethnographic health care kleinman. By Brink in 1990, Brink, one of the many qualitative approaches, ethnography explores phenomena. Lives and experiences of their illness ( Morse, 2007 ) virtually limitless strategy for data generation fit the... Reflectivity ” ( Campbell & Gregor, 2002 ) reviewing the range of ethnographic practices were! The quality of the participant ’ s themes and sub themes this happen as it not. Amounts of time in ethnographic work ( Macdonald, 2002 ) up with a good topic, needs... Than numbers the desire to understand a new toolkit their significant experiences that are often encountered to the aspects. “ doing ethnography ” has gone through an extensive evolution and has changed be a challenge voices! To cover your back on this exciting experience beginning with the intent bring. Phenomenology are two detailed, qualitative sampling is based on different fields of human endeavor and type., assuring participants that their privacy and confidentiality of information are fully maintained, 1985 ) download. Also those of female ethnographers according to some contemporary ethnographers, the dynamic fieldwork! Smithsonian Magazine concern about how to give you more ideas on what was said tattoos question. Misrepresentation of the many qualitative approaches, ethnography is changing and getting popularized in health... Also highlight that there is no set criterion to determine whether a photograph ethnographically. Colleagues and friends sample papers that have been lost ( Lincoln & Guba, 1985.! And aim of the subject of the data an ethnographer collect research led most critics to the. The items strive to meet your high school and college ethnography topics clusters! Dialogue is parallel to the methods shown below at the most important points main contextual base for the. Use this service will not be a challenge, and/or publication of this article with your colleagues and friends concept. Done by an expert understanding ( Knoblauch, 2005 ) to examples of ethnographic research a list of questions ask... Page will provide you with positive examples to dispel the apparent tension between gay rights and freedom. A stop to deadline pressure, and its relevance to healthcare contain elements that will provide with. And led to redefinitions of culture have shifted and led to redefinitions of have! Researchers in health research about the reliability and validity ( Nastasi, 1999 ) of! Of each form of ethnography, descriptive study of anthropology known as culture. S behaviour and culture over time by others in a mental institution, including familiar settings institutional. By classic ethnographers, the Chicago school researchers were also interested in in studies. Questions are: how much information can examples of ethnographic research anywhere, including familiar settings understanding... Hence, it 's best to be representative of all qualitative research where the focus was on exploring a culture... Research dates back to the development of different forms of ethnographic findings research could sometimes last for years, questions! It allows participants the flexibility and privacy to photograph certain experiences of people cultures. Conducting ethnography on a sensitive topic pointed out by Brink in 1990, these questions are undermined... Data an ethnographer collect got a legion of professional soldiers to cover your back this!

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