Biocomposites have potential to replace or serve as a framework allowing the regeneration of traumatized or degenerated tissues or organs, thus improving the patients’ quality of life. Mechanical Properties of Different Biomedical Materials Classes. “Life cycle assessment of biofibres replacing glass fibres as reinforcement in plastics,” 33, 267-287. “The future prospects of microbial cellulose in biomedical applications,” Biomacromolecules 8(1), 1-12. doi:10.1021/bm060620d, Daunton, C., and Kothari, S. (2012). The smaller, younger roots and narrow flexible twigs and stems have been used in basketry and to make fishing nets. Individual fibers from yuccas were produced by soaking leaves in water, then pounding them with wooden clubs on flat rocks. DiGregorio, B. E. (2009). (JP). There are several factors and issues required to be considered before choosing appropriate natural fibres composites for biomedical and engineering applications such as biodegradability, bioresorbability, biocompatibility, sterilizability, functionability, manufacturability, as well as mechanical and thermal properties (Ambrose and Clanton 2004; DiGregorio 2009; Hin 2004). Photo courtesy of U.S. Forest Service. “A review on biomaterials: Scope, applications & human anatomy significance,” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2(4), 91-101. Bodros, E., Pillin, I., Montrelay, N., and Baley, C. (2007). 30, 254-261. Therefore, the use of natural fibers may bring environmental benefits as well as cost benefits. Moreover, in orthopedic or dental composites, friction in a moving part can scrape the matrix and expose the reinforcing material to the host and produce new challenges at the interface. Paper birch bark is easy to recognize since it appears to be peeling. “Effect of fiber surface treatments on thermo-mechanical behavior of poly(lactic acid)/phormium tenax composites,” Journal of Polymers and the Environment 21(3), 881-891. doi:10.1007/s10924-013-0594-y, Strandqvist, M. (2012). Kalia, S., Dufresne, A., Cherian, B. M., Kaith, B. S., Avérous, L., Njuguna, J., and Nassiopoulos, E. (2011). Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Fibres Products. (2008). 2005b; Romanzini et al.2012). An example of the use of biocomposites in clinical application is cages for spinal fusion. Integrate fiber into the first meal of your day by eating oatmeal or a whole-grain cereal. In this regard, there is ongoing research to address these issues. The knots were tied when the bark was wet, and once dry, the knots shrank making the joint tighter. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J395v01n03_03, Puglia, D., Biagiotti, J., and Kenny, J. Since the extent of stress carried by bone and metallic or ceramic implant is directly related to their stiffness; bone is insufficiently loaded compared to the implant. 2001). Sarasini, F., Puglia, D., Fortunati, E., Kenny, J. M., and Santulli, C. (2013). ), seed fibers (coir, cotton, and kapok), fruit fibres (oil palm, coir), stalk (wheat, rice, rye, etc. The solution to this is a new porous resorbable ceramic-polymer biocomposite, with morphology and a mechanical resistance similar to those of natural cancellous bone. 2001. Retrieved from http://www.pessoal.utfpr.edu. “Mouritsen Soren medical device for insertion into a joint,” U.S Patent US20090234459. Hemp comes from the Cannabis sativa plant and has been used to make cloth since ancient times. “Characterisation of natural fibre reinforcements and composites,” Journal of Composites 2013, 1-4. doi:10.1155/2013/416501. 2004). “Biobased performance bioplastic: Mirel,” Chemistry & Biology 16(1), 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.01.001. 2011). Bledzki, A., and Jaszkiewicz, A. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J395v01n03_03. 2000). Fiber Plants. (2012). Many studies have been carried out to determine the impact of fibre type and processing methods on the tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of natural fibre composites (Mueller and Krobjilowski 2004; Mukhopadhyay and Fangueiro 2009; Bledzki and Jaszkiewicz 2010). Indian and Chinese craftspeople have been utilizing glues, waxes, and tissues to repair or regenerate abnormal parts of the body as a traditional treatment of wounded or traumatized patients (Patel and Gohil 2012). “Naturally derived factors and their role in the promotion of angiogenesis for the healing of chronic wounds,” Angiogenesis 16(3), 493-502. doi:10.1007/s10456-013-9341-1, Mueller, D., and Krobjilowski, A. Sustainability Using resources in a way that minimize. Natural fibres are those that are not synthetic or manmade (Garmendia et al. “Coir fibre reinforcement and application in polymer composites: A review,” J. br/pichorim/AULA/Bioengenharia/Kutz_Biomed_17.pdf. “Absorbable protective coatings for wound with the use of sponge and process for producing the same,” WIPO patent WO/2002/054998. Czaja, W. K., Young, D. J., Kawecki, M., and Brown, R. M. (2007). Wood fibres – can be used to make paper from trees Sisal fibres – are obtained from Agave Sisalana and these fibres are used in the construction of cars, furniture, plastics and even paper. Pineapple leaf fibres (PALF) have been reported to be very versatile material with promise for a wide range of biomedical and biotechnology applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, wound dressing, and medical implants (Cherian et al. Milk. Plant fibre is composed mainly of cellulose and cellulose fibres are most commonly used to make paper and cloth. “Medical prosthesis, especially for aneurysms, with a connection between its liner and its structure,” European Patent EP0818184. A tray made of beargrass and yucca. Botanically the fiber is considered to be an individual cell, which is part of sclerenchyma tissue and is characterized by a thick cell wall and a high length-to-diameter ratio (reaching 1000 and more). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8908867, Jawaid, M., and Abdul Khalil, H. P. S. (2011). Sain, M., and Bhatnagar, A. Soapweed, Yucca glauca, also had historical significance to indigenous people as a medicinal and fiber source. 2013). Banana yucca (Yucca baccata) plants growing in the foothills of the Sandia Mountains on the Cibola National Forest. The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference defined a biomaterial as “any material or mixture of materials manufactured or natural in base which can be used for any interval of time, as a complete item or as a part of a system which treats, enhances or replaces any tissue, organ, or function of the body” (Patel and Gohil 2012). Researchers obtained cellulose nanofibers from flax bast fibers, hemp fibers, kraft pulp, and rutabaga and developed nanocomposites from cellulose nanofibres which can find application in the medical field such as blood bags, cardiac devices, and valves as reinforcing biomaterials (Bhatnagar 2005). Human tissue can be grouped into hard (bone and tooth) and soft tissues (skin, blood vessels, cartilage, and ligaments). Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibres for Composite Applications. Ambrose, C. G., and Clanton, T. O. The anisotropy of the elastic properties of the biological tissues has to be considered in the design criterion for implants made from composite biomaterials. 2007; Daunton and Kothari 2012). can affect the properties (Navarro et al. Fig. Mater. Manufacturing of biocomposites from renewable sources is a challenging task, involving metals, polymers, and ceramics. Another advantage of cotton fibre is that it can be … J.E.G. Many materials can be used in biomedical applications and they may be grouped into (a) metals, (b) ceramics, (c) polymers, and (d) composites. Several issues must be considered regarding the biological and host response to design biomedical biocomposites and predicting their performance (Hutmacher et al. Garcia, M. I., and Garmendia, J. G. (2007). wool, silk, and chicken feather fibres (Mukhopadhyay and Fangueiro 2009). 2008). Different cellulose fibres can be used for textile and technical applications, e.g. Natural fibres can be obtained from plant fibres such as sisal, hemp, bamboo, coir, flax, kenaf, jute, ramie, oil palm, pineapple, banana, cotton, etc., as well as from animal sources, e.g. Published Patents for Biomedical Applications of Natural Fibre. Presently fibre-reinforced polymer composites are extensively used multiphase materials in orthopedics, and most of the today’s upper and lower limb prostheses are made from composites with an underlying polymer matrix (Chandramohan and Marimuthu 2011). Fibers are even soft enough to be used as baby diapers. Experimental procedures,” 15(3), 415-420. Ideally, these biomaterials must be nontoxic, non-carcinogenic, chemically inert, stable, and mechanically strong enough to withstand the repeated forces of a lifetime. Whilst all land plants contain fibres they are usually too short or too weak to be used for anything other than paper-making, but there are well over 100 species suitable for growing in temperate climates that produce long and relatively strong fibres. “Properties and potential of biobinders, and biocomposites,” Rev. “Polyester cool-fibre antibacterial pillow,” China Patent CN102715804, Meyers, M. A., Chen, P.-Y., Lin, A. Y.-M., and Seki, Y. Depending on the type of natural fibres, type of matrix, the proportion of fiber-matrix, and the type of manufacturing process, the properties of fiber composites can be tailored to achieve the desired end product (Ticoalu 2010). The type of fibers, moisture content, and form of fibers (yarn, woven, twine, chopped, felt, etc.) Fibers can be spun into filaments, thread, or rope; be chemically modified to create a composite material (e.g., rayon or cellophane); or matted into sheets as with paper. As biomedical application of natural fibre and biocomposite is a new field, most of the research has focused on improving properties of natural fibre and also enhancement properties between the polymer matrices and natural fillers in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the end products. (2006). 2013). 2001). The properties of polymer composites can be altered by the constituent components and filler which significantly different from those of the individual constituents (Ramakrishna et al. Moreover, problems of corrosion and release of allergenic metal ions, such as nickel or chromium, are totally eliminated. Plant fibers are found as structural elements in all higher plants. Furthermore, they are essentially composite materials with anisotropic properties that depend on the roles and structural arrangements of various components (e.g. “Polymeric scaffolds in tissue engineering application: A review,” International Journal of Polymer Science 2011(ii), 1-19. doi:10.1155/2011/290602. 2. Plant fibers are employed in the manufacture of paper and textile (cloth), and dietary fiber is an important component of human nutrition. “Looking for links between natural fibres’ structures and their physical properties,” Conference Papers in Materials Science, 1-10. doi:10.1155/2013/141204. Wood fiber, distinguished from vegetable fiber, is from tree sources. process of removal of fibres from the plant stem is called retting. In the 20th century, it was used to make military uniforms in both World Wars. Natural fibres possess a high strength to weight ratio, non-corrosive nature, high fracture toughness, renewability, and sustainability, which give them unique advantages over other materials. Consequently, such fibres have long been used for textiles and rope making. Coir fibre is thick and … 2009; Ramakrishna et al. Natural fibres by themselves cannot be used to sustain the range of loads expected in many biomedical applications (Everitt et al. World Scientific. 13(4), 31-38. As the number of constituent materials in composite increases, so can the variations in the host response. The tough leaf fibers could also be braided into ropes. (2004). Volume 2011, Article ID 837875, 35 pages. van Dam, T.A. Sweet grass was often burned to purify dancers in tribal ceremonies. “Improving the impact strength of natural fiber reinforced composites by specifically designed material and process parameters,” Int. 2001; With Permission). Recently, ongoing work has explored the use of palm tree fibres for industrial and biomedical applications (Anon 2013). Plants also provide us with fibres for making cloth, rope, paper etc. It has been used to make clothes, raingear, mats, ropes, blankets, tinder, sewing thread, and wicks. Plants including cotton, jute, flax and hemp are used to obtain plant fibres. Most of this fibre reaching… Photo by Paul Wray @ Forestryimages.org. “Bioabsorbable implants: Review of clinical experience in orthopedic surgery,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering 32(1), 171-177, Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14964733. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Coir+ Fibre+Reinforcement+and+Application+in+Polymer+Composites+:+A+Review#4, Wu, T.-M., and Wu, C.-Y. After rinsing away the softened pulp, the remaining fiber filaments were twisted together into threads. Table 1 shows mechanical properties of different types of natural fibers for composite applications as compared with human tissue. Moreover, the properties are also affected by the place where the fibers are grown, cultivation conditions, the part of the plant they are harvested from, the growing period, and any retting or extracting processes (Ticoalu 2010). Cheng, G., and Cheng, J. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266353810002319. Metals or ceramics seem to be more suitable for hard tissue applications from the mechanical point of view as compared to polymers for soft tissue applications. It is waterproof, tough, resinous and durable. Mohanty, A. K., Misra, M., and Drzal, L. (2002). 2011). Leaves were used to weave patterns into baskets and used for edge trimming on mats. Shallow pine needle tray made from longleaf pine and bark. 2009). Figure 3 illustrates fabrication of different types of bio-composites according to their reinforcement forms. The primary reason for the development of biocomposites from natural fibre is flexibility of type/distribution of the reinforcing phases in the composites and the possibility to obtain biocomposites having a wide range of mechanical and biological properties (Ramakrishna et al. Banana yucca (Yucca baccata) is preferred over other yuccas because of the strength of its fibers. (2013). Cattails are used for weaving baskets, mats, raincoats, and baby diapers. Zainudin, E., and Sapuan, S. (2009). In the 1980s, producers were able to make fine cloth suitable for clothing from hemp. People also used this important grass for sewing, basket weaving, and stuffing for pillows and mattresses. Fibers from the thick bark of the western red cedar, Thuja plicata, have been most widely utilized. Mailstop Code: 1103 (2006). Other researchers also reported that traditional plant-originated cellulose and cellulose-based materials (woven cotton gauze dressings) have been used in medical applications for many years and are mainly utilized to stop bleeding (Czaja et al. Puglia, D., Biagiotti, J., and Kenny, J. Hemp is a bast fiber plant similar to Flax, Kenaf, Jute, and Ramie. In orthopedic surgery, this mismatch of stiffness between the bone and the metallic or ceramic implants influences the load at the implant/tissue interface. Both synthetic and bio-resin can be either in the form of thermoset or thermoplastic type of resin. Flax, hemp, jute, and kenaf are characterized by a high proportion of long, flexible bast fibres that are readily separated and purified from the other materials in the plant. From a search of the literature it is clear that fully resorbable biocomposite fracture fixation has been achieved based on the group of PLA (polylactic acid) polymers; PLAs possess two major characteristics that make them an extremely attractive bioabsorbable material: (1) they can degrade inside the body at a rate that can be controlled, e.g. by Rachel Jones, University of Portsmouth. 2009). 1400 Independence Ave., SW Cellulose produces long, … 2820 Faucette Dr., Campus Box 8001Raleigh, NC 27695. There are numerous dyes obtained from plants with which to colour our fabrics. Biobased materials such as natural fibers, biopolymers, and biocomposites integrate the principles of sustainability, industrial ecology, eco-efficiency, and green chemistry. Most of the living tissues such as bone, cartilage, and skin are essentially composites (Meyers et al. In the past few years, demand for natural fibres has shown a dramatic increase for making new types of environmentally–friendly composites (Cheung et al. 2013). Cotton Flax Coir Silk Cotton Hemp Jute 3. Plant Fibre is a crafting material used for furniture, blocks, and a variety of useful crafting recipes, including bandages and woven fabric. Wool … This review paper addresses the utilization of plant fibres and its composites in biomedical applications and considers potential future research directed at environment-friendly biodegradable composites for biomedical applications. Mechanical Properties of Different Natural Fibre Composites. Teas were prepared from the plant materials for sore throat and coughs. It is mainly grown in regions having black soil and warm conditions. Sheets of birch bark where sewn together to make waterproofing for wigwams. It has been used to make clothes, raingear, mats, ropes, blankets, tinder, sewing thread, and wicks. Plant fibres, such as flax or hemp, can be used as a reinforcement for PVC, PE or PP-type polymers in place of synthetic fibres (glass, Kevlar, carbon, etc.). 2007). doi:10.1142/5673, Hutmacher, D., Hürzeler, M. B., and Schliephake, H. (2000). Table 2. (2006). Potential Use of Plant Fibres and their Composites for Biomedical Applications, Farideh Namvar,a,b,* Mohammad Jawaid,a,g Paridah Md Tahir,a Rosfarizan Mohamad,a,c Susan Azizi,d Alireza Khodavandi,e Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,f and Majid Dehghan Nayeri a, Keywords: Fibres; Polymers; Biocomposites; Biomedical applications, Contact information: a: Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; b: Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran; c: Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; d: Faculty of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; e: Department of Paramedical Sciences, Gachsaran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran; f: Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; g:Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;* Corresponding author: farideh.namvar@gmail.com. 35 pages was and still is often used in an emergency as sun-glasses in order be! 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